Cannabis Plant Light Leak During Flowering Revegging

There are many different places that people grow cannabis indoors, including; basements bedrooms closets garages greenhouses attics With the right planning your indoor grow room can be used to harvest buds 3 to 5 different times in a year, as compared to the. Cannabis is an annual flowering plant, its life cycle limited to just one flowering season. Even a few short nights or a light leak during the flowering stage may be all it takes to start a re-veg! Re-vegging cannabis plants show odd leaf symptoms such as smooth leaves, twisted or unusual growth, and you may see new stems or long leaves growing directly out. Nor will they produce as much THC or weight. This could be due to its environment, prolonged flowering periods or cross-contamination and pollination between male and female plants, resulting in offspring with higher THC content. So, if your plant is revegging, it IS a light leak or an interruption of the dark in one manner or the other. Don’t let them search for light while sitting in a dark spot. Don’t even go into your grow room during the 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness because even the light from another room leaking in for a second can change things. Now, let's take a closer look at marijuana's four flowering phases:. Possible problem is light leaking into the grow room. 0 comes complete with a powerful and adjustable lighting system, 6500k grow bulbs, 2700k flowering bulbs, a 2-year supply of Moon Dust grow and flower nutrients, 9 net pots, and 9 starter plugs. Revegging can be used to create a mother plant from a plant which has given you particularly good results, or just to get another. Replies: 2. If you want your plants to flower, they need 12 hours of light and 12 hours of absolute, uninterrupted darkness. Different light, but surprisingly enough plants still flower when surrounded by street lights. We will want the buds to be exposed to the light because this will get them to grow much more once transitioning to the flowering phase. In regards to knowing when to harvest your plants, checking the maturity of the trichomes is the most effective way to know. During this life cycle, it will remain within the “vegetative state” for roughly 6-9 months. If you have very hot summers (over 85°) or cold summer nights (lower than 50°), don’t expect a heavy yield. Even the slightest light leak can disrupt this process and ruin your grow. After 2 to 3 weeks. 3% THC levels. You will be able to find white pistols, which are like hairs, sprouting out from the plant. Germination 2 10. Once mature, Sour Tsunami produces dense olive-green buds. During the 12 hours of darkness each day, it's extremely important that no light enter the location of the plants. I don't have the experience to be sure one way or the other, but there are some interesting points that argue against light leaks to a small point and other issues like herms that reinforce the no leak law. Myth #2: It Produces Way Less Weight than a Regular Growing Plant. Seedlings need more light than full grown plants, ideally as much as 16-18 hours a day. Smoking ignites the cannabis by burning the flower, which introduces a greater number of harmful chemicals and irritants into your lungs. Possible problem over-fertilization, burned roots from too much fertilizer, root bound, marijuana plant disease. This could happen where light leaks through during that period. The repeal of marijuana prohibition has begun, and is steadily gaining momentum. Light poisoning refers to the flowering night cycle of a plant being unnaturally interrupted with light. “How can I keep my cannabis plants from flowering?” I am referring to young plants germinated from seeds or clones that are hearty enough to bring outdoors. as opposed to the high amounts of potassium and phosphorus that it likely received during flowering. The cause of pinkeye is not known. Having more leaves also helps the marijuana plant to take full advantage of the available light conditions. If you're in an area where the weather is warm enough that you can plant cannabis outdoors in the late winter to early spring, you should know about re-vegging. Additional light may be required for seeds started during the winter months. Post-Harvest Re-Vegging. As the days are getting shorter, light levels are decreasing and it’s getting colder outside, now is a great time to check your greenhouse environmental control systems and equipment. Lightproofing the room is necessary. Different light, but surprisingly enough plants still flower when surrounded by street lights. I just reread this question, and this is what you do: Harvest just about the entire plant when it's ready, but leave a popcorn bud on the 4 lowest branches of the plant, (two on each side of the stalk). You mustn’t prune more than 2-3 weeks into flowering. Unlike standard cannabis plants, which depend on light cycles to fully mature and produce buds, auto-flowering plants depend solely on age. The availability of light will greatly affect the longevity of the vegetative stage. Light poisoning refers to the flowering night cycle of a plant being unnaturally interrupted with light. Marijuana flowering nutrients are higher in phosphorous (P). But when they transfer those plants outside, problems can arise. Flowering is 63 days and potency is extremely high. But, cannabis being a weed that naturally grows under a sky illuminated by stars and the moon during night, must have a certain tolerance to low light at night - hell, I've read about outdoor crops going into flowering after a couple of really dark. If the distance between nodes becomes too long, it may be time to adjust the temperature (if indoors). Cannabis (/ ˈ k æ n ə b ɪ s / is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae. usually because of a light leak or a. “How can I keep my cannabis plants from flowering?” I am referring to young plants germinated from seeds or clones that are hearty enough to bring outdoors. The most significant reason is that light leaks can wreak havoc especially during the flowering or bloom phase. During your second week of flowering your plant will start to form small marijuana buds. For example, at the flowering stage, cannabis plants need you to leave the grow lights on for 10-12 hours a day. The only thing that will cause revegging is light. Is it important to always follow the 12-hour light and 12-hour dark cycle during the flowering stage of my cannabis crop? Yes, this is one of the most important details for growing a successful crop. Juddy designed a simple system that recaptures the water from the air conditioners and dehumidifiers and, instead of sending it down the drain, reuses it for subsequent waterings. Now I want them to grow larger, but if they go by the natural light cycle there are over 10 hours of darkness which will trigger flowering. By considering the design of the grow box, accessories, and size; you can decide if the product will adequately allow you to cycle through various stages of plant growth with ease. Cannabis plants grow outdoors naturally between the months of April to October/November. During this life cycle, it will remain within the “vegetative state” for roughly 6-9 months. As we have mentioned, the typical cannabis seed of the past has required the grower to ensure a 12h/12h lighting cycle before the plants will know it’s time to flower, whereas the wonderful autoflowering ruderalis genetics ensures that flowering starts exactly when it’s time, regardless of what you do with your lighting. as opposed to the high amounts of potassium and phosphorus that it likely received during flowering. Autoflowering plants as we have determined earlier grow best when you give them between 18 and 24 hours of light each day but there are many circumstances when a grower need to give his plants only 12 hours of light. Indoors, the flowering period takes some nine. To reveg a weed plant means to send it back to the vegetative phase right after the harvest. Cloning of Flowering Plants Another method of cannabis cultivation is the creation of clones of flowering cannabis plants and coercing them to root and return to the vegetative phase. If the distance between nodes becomes too long, it may be time to adjust the temperature (if indoors). During the flowering cycle, you want your plants to be in total darkness once the lights are off. With cannabis, light leaks can create stress and cause a genetically female plant to express male traits. Now, let's take a closer look at marijuana's four flowering phases:. The most important thing to consider and deliver is adequate plant light. There are a few ways that a cannabis plant can revert from a flowering period back to a vegetative period. Having more leaves also helps the marijuana plant to take full advantage of the available light conditions. Light Leaks in the Night Cycle. Nor will they produce as much THC or weight. Deficient plants will exhibit uniform light green to yellow on older leaves, these leaves may die and drop. Planting Cannabis indoors 5. Then it is time to force flowering. Unless the flowers are formed and you could get mould. If you have light leaks during your 12-12 dark cycle, incorrect growing conditions, poor lighting, or defective hydroponics nutrients, your blooming marijuana plants won't mature as rapidly as they could. com/ Visit our store- https://shop. The best marijuana fertilizers have plenty of trace elements in them. Growing weed comes to a near end when it is harvest time. Adding a blackout curtain to this type of greenhouse will completely eliminate the greenhouses ventilation ability in key danger times for the cannabis plant. Some growers maintain a constant 24/7 lights on period, while others prefer a 18 hours ON and 6 hours OFF in order to let the room cool down. While growing weed indoors does present some challenges for someone new to the hobby – and there’s a ton of misinformation out there about how to grow weed indoors – this endeavor doesn’t need to be strenuous. In the flowering cycle, a male plant creates pollen in pollen sacs, and when the pollen sacs are fully developed, they open up, spreading the pollen around, which will pollinate any nearby female flowers. If you have those two things covered, go for it. Light Cycle: as long as the plants receive no more than 10 to 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness they will remain in the vegetative growth phase, with the exception of auto-flowering strains. Grow room design for marijuana growing is easy for beginners or advanced gardeners alike. It then stays on for 24 hours/7days until the plant is 8-15 inches tall. The best way to prevent this is to close yourself inside your darkened room during the daylight, and then after allowing a few minutes for your eyes to adjust to the dark, check for any light leaks from covered windows, door jams, etc. I just reread this question, and this is what you do: Harvest just about the entire plant when it's ready, but leave a popcorn bud on the 4 lowest branches of the plant, (two on each side of the stalk). Especially during the flowering stage it’s important that no light reaches the plants, because this could cause them to revert back into the vegetative stage. About Youtuber Herbit420 is a YouTube channel for 21+ Medical Cannabis patients, Adults in legal states and Legal CBD users. How to Re-Veg a Cannabis Plant. Then it is time to force flowering. Re-vegging a cannabis plant gives it a new life. This happens when the marijuana plants are exposed to light during the 12-hour dark period in the flowering stage. Unless the flowers are formed and you could get mould. When the plant sees a too much of a temperature change at night, nodes will likely become longer and weaker. It’ll take a couple of weeks before the first flowers become visible, and until that time the marijuana plant continues to grow nicely. But when they transfer those plants outside, problems can arise. That and you can’t Hermie unless you have flowers… Right? I run my veg area 24/0 because it’s out in the open anyway and I flick the overhead lights on and off all day long when I come down to the basement to putter. It offers initial nutrients and is PH balanced to provide maximum growth potential. Revegging can be used to create a mother plant from a plant which has given you particularly good results, or just to get another. Some marijuana plants are too damaged before harvesting or by harvesting, so they won’t re-vegetate. When it comes to monstercropping cannabis plants, the main idea is to put a flowering plant back into the vegetative stage, either by growing a plant out again after harvest, or taking a clone from a flowering marijuana plant. Distinguishing Male from Female Cannabis Plants. I have heard from many places that stressing a plant during flowering can cause them to hermie. Marijuana plants should be subjected to the above conditions during the three stages of leaf development in order to produce more female plants. How to Re-Veg a Cannabis Plant. During the 4 to 16 weeks of the flowering stage, the cannabis plant will continue its growth until the flowers fully develop. So, if your plant is revegging, it IS a light leak or an interruption of the dark in one manner or the other. Built with the company’s unique wideband LEDs, the full spectrum light emitted gives solid canopy penetration combined with the specialized linear optics which allow for wider coverage. Even if the vast proportion of the active constituents get extracted from the herb during vaping, already vaporized herbs can still be used as an ingredient for instance for brownies and all kinds of treats. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOPERIOD. Predictive Insights Into Yields. The best way to prevent this is to close yourself inside your darkened room during the daylight, and then after allowing a few minutes for your eyes to adjust to the dark, check for any light leaks from covered windows, door jams, etc. ly/1P3Tott Get Exclusive Videos- http://SchoolOfHardNugs. Light Cycle: as long as the plants receive no more than 10 to 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness they will remain in the vegetative growth phase, with the exception of auto-flowering strains. Eco Farm 120 watts commercial. hemp/medical cannabis plant are not created equal. Make very sure no light leaks in, especially from outside. Accidental re-vegging happens more often than you'd think during the flowering stage. As the plants photosynthetic capacity is unchanged. Lighting-> When I transplant is when I turn on the HPS lamp. Some marijuana plants are too damaged before harvesting or by harvesting, so they won’t re-vegetate. By considering the design of the grow box, accessories, and size; you can decide if the product will adequately allow you to cycle through various stages of plant growth with ease. This plant will blow away the best Big Bud yield. There are many different places that people grow cannabis indoors, including; basements bedrooms closets garages greenhouses attics With the right planning your indoor grow room can be used to harvest buds 3 to 5 different times in a year, as compared to the. The most popular type of light utilized during marijuana plants’ flowering stage is by far HPS grow lights. Choose from Feminized, Autoflowering and CBD Medical Marijuana Seeds for sale,sold with guaranteed germination. If not go to #9. Re vegging means putting a plant back into its vegetative state after taking a harvest from it. as opposed to the high amounts of potassium and phosphorus that it likely received during flowering. If you're in an area where the weather is warm enough that you can plant cannabis outdoors in the late winter to early spring, you should know about re-vegging. This also happens when your plants in the flowering stage are put out in the. Exposing it to a lower temperature by some 4 degrees during the dark cycle before it starts flowering triggers the appearance of purple hues. It doesn't get any better. It’s also essential that growers turn off their CO2 generators at night or whenever the lights are off. That and you can’t Hermie unless you have flowers… Right? I run my veg area 24/0 because it’s out in the open anyway and I flick the overhead lights on and off all day long when I come down to the basement to putter. Once ready, switching the light cycle 12 hours on, 12 hours off, triggers the flowering stage. We know our marijuana growing tips. Origin: Cannabis indica is native to Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, and Turkey. you know the plant is female) and in terms of product. I don't have the experience to be sure one way or the other, but there are some interesting points that argue against light leaks to a small point and other issues like herms that reinforce the no leak law. Re-vegging a cannabis plant gives it a new life. CO2 saturation is a great technique for the vegetative stage, when plants should be getting plenty of light. Truth: This myth can be true in certain situations. Once mature, Sour Tsunami produces dense olive-green buds. Smoking ignites the cannabis by burning the flower, which introduces a greater number of harmful chemicals and irritants into your lungs. For myself personally I move my plants away from the lights, spray and drench them, let them dry for a bit and then move them back under the light. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOPERIOD. Cannabis is an annual flowering plant, its life cycle limited to just one flowering season. Lighting-> When I transplant is when I turn on the HPS lamp. Any light that leaks into the plant space can disrupt the flowering of the cannabis and cause stress to or confuse the plant. Three species may be recognized: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis; C. During this life cycle, it will remain within the “vegetative state” for roughly 6-9 months. Welcome to the Viparspectra “Reflector Style” V600 LED Grow Light, with full spectrum lighting, reflectors and heat dissipation system, this light is perfect for any type of indoor plants during all stages. To reveg a weed plant means to send it back to the vegetative phase right after the harvest. This happens when the marijuana plants are exposed to light during the 12-hour dark period in the flowering stage. Hey guys thanks for the replies. Simply put, when the duration of daylight hours naturally decreases at the end of summer, your plants will sense the change in seasons and focus all their energy on making great, big buds. A chemical burn is what the plant suffers because of over-feeding. The effects of cannabis vary from person to person: you may feel chilled out, relaxed and happy ; some people get the giggles or become more talkative ; hunger pangs ("the munchies") are common. Planting Cannabis indoors 5. Marijuana plants should be subjected to the above conditions during the three stages of leaf development in order to produce more female plants. Purchase marijuana plant. During the flowering stage it’s 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness. When the canopy is filled, there is no need to bring your light closer during flowering. I've got them back on 12/12, and was considering chopping them this weekend. You’ll need to adjust the light pattern provided to the cannabis plant during the flowering stage. By reducing the light duration from 18 to 12 hours, the plant ‘thinks’ the fall season is coming and begins to flower. Then it is time to force flowering. During the dark cycle, you must ensure no light gets in. Is it important to always follow the 12-hour light and 12-hour dark cycle during the flowering stage of my cannabis crop? Yes, this is one of the most important details for growing a successful crop. If the distance between nodes becomes too long, it may be time to adjust the temperature (if indoors). The effects of cannabis vary from person to person: you may feel chilled out, relaxed and happy ; some people get the giggles or become more talkative ; hunger pangs ("the munchies") are common. Smoking ignites the cannabis by burning the flower, which introduces a greater number of harmful chemicals and irritants into your lungs. When it comes to managing humidity during the flowering stage, keep your grow room between 45% humidity. Make very sure no light leaks in, especially from outside. Origin: Cannabis indica is native to Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, and Turkey. The reflective walls ensure all light is directed onto the canopy, and from various angles. Whether you’re building out a grow room at home or for commercial use, there are a few things you should consider for finding a space for germinating, growing, and harvesting flower. But during the flowering stage, that might be a problem as it re-vegetates. The plant-derived cannabinoids in marijuana block these body-cannabinoids, stopping this permeability, and making the intestinal bond tighter together. The best way to prevent this is to close yourself inside your darkened room during the daylight, and then after allowing a few minutes for your eyes to adjust to the dark, check for any light leaks from covered windows, door jams, etc. Revegging can be used to create a mother plant from a plant which has given you particularly good results, or just to get another. Contains boron, which may be detrimental to your cannabis plants if used long-term; Final Thoughts. Choose from Feminized, Autoflowering and CBD Medical Marijuana Seeds for sale,sold with guaranteed germination. This means that towards the Sept/Oct/Nov dates the plants will be in flowering. HOW DOES ACCIDENTAL RE-VEGGING HAPPEN? When growing cannabis indoors, even small light leaks can disrupt the flowering period and make your plants revert to a vegetative state. During your second week of flowering your plant will start to form small marijuana buds. I've been promising you all a report on Kong when she finished. When it comes to monstercropping cannabis plants, the main idea is to put a flowering plant back into the vegetative stage, either by growing a plant out again after harvest, or taking a clone from a flowering marijuana plant. If you are caught growing marijuana while using the system described herein, don't even think of running to me, I didn't tell you to grow marijuana. By breaking the light cycle into multiple six-hour periods, the plant can rest and process the light it has received. Following a timer malfunction my skunk #1 clones currently at day 60 or so of flower have had 4/5 days of 24 hour light. Re vegging means putting a plant back into its vegetative state after taking a harvest from it. The number of species within the genus is disputed. Only one plant has showed it's sex and was a boy. Whether you’re building out a grow room at home or for commercial use, there are a few things you should consider for finding a space for germinating, growing, and harvesting flower. Whether due to inadequate watering, excessive heat, or pest infestations, yellow leaves are a sign of sickly cannabis plants and must therefore be addressed as soon as possible. During flowering it is best to keep the average light intensity between 700-1000umols (60,000-80,000 lux). Vaporized cannabis may still hold up to 20% to 30% of the cannabinoids compared to before vaporization. There is a lot of research that suggests cannabis plants can only process a certain amount of light per day. It is a solution that is suspended in water and available as a dietary supplement in health stores all around the world. This could happen where light leaks through during that period. It offers initial nutrients and is PH balanced to provide maximum growth potential. I am not sure if this is valid anymore (or not) in the world of cloning and growing generations of plants indoors, but every marijuana plant has a natural light cycle it will grow best too. Once mature, Sour Tsunami produces dense olive-green buds. If you have light leaks during your 12-12 dark cycle, incorrect growing conditions, poor lighting, or defective hydroponics nutrients, your blooming marijuana plants won’t mature as rapidly as they could. Light Leaks in the Flowering Stage - Revegging is common when flowering cannabis plants are exposed to light during their 12-hour dark period, for example if there's a light leak in the grow tent, or if someone is occasionally turning the light on in the closet. Any light that leaks into the plant space can disrupt the flowering of the cannabis and cause stress to or confuse the plant. Indoors, the flowering period takes some nine. Once that season ends, the plant will senesce and die, its seeds responsible for carrying […]. Probably the easiest method, this will allow you to harvest a plant for buds and then re-veg it for a second growing season. Now I want them to grow larger, but if they go by the natural light cycle there are over 10 hours of darkness which will trigger flowering. The best way to prevent this is to close yourself inside your darkened room during the daylight, and then after allowing a few minutes for your eyes to adjust to the dark, check for any light leaks from covered windows, door jams, etc. Origin: Cannabis indica is native to Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, and Turkey. ; or, light poisoning. Only take about 40% of the plant by taking only top colas and leaving all giant fan leaves and remaining shoots and buds. My understanding is stray light or light leaks in veg are irrelevant since it’s darkness that drives the photo period. Indoors, the flowering period takes some nine. Post-Harvest Re-Vegging. You can put the grow tent kit in any corner as they won’t take much space and avoid the worry of separate grow room. As plants grow during vegetative stage, they are trained horizontally underneath the framework and held in place with twine. Electric Sky 300 V2 Wideband LED Grow Light. Buy Marijuana Seeds online with free stealth shipping and guaranteed delivery to all parts of the USA. Most auto-flowering strains were built with stealth and quickness in mind. Flowering is 63 days and potency is extremely high. Indoor and outdoor cannabis hermaphrodites are often the result of the same cause, photoperiod interruption (interruption of the darkness cycle) via light leaks, human error, etc. Female cannabis plants are ready to harvest in 6-12 weeks after the light has been “flipped” to a 12. Even a few short nights or a light leak during the flowering stage may be all it takes to start a re-veg! Re-vegging cannabis plants show odd leaf symptoms such as smooth leaves, twisted or unusual growth, and you may see new stems or long leaves growing directly out. As a side effect of the re-vegging process, cannabis plants respond with odd growth patterns, which a grower can. It can also be used during the flowering stage to increase bud production and growth, but only for the first two to three weeks. When light leaks occur, return to your vegging cycle then repeat putting your plants on a 24-36 lights-out rest period after 2-3 days; So when it comes to lighting during your pre-flowering stage light as follows: Day 22-27: Light schedule - 18/6 off; Day 28: Light Schedule - 18/24 off. As plants grow during vegetative stage, they are trained horizontally underneath the framework and held in place with twine. In a 2017 cannabis fertilizer study by the University of Guelph, researchers collected weekly data points on plant growth, including measurements of chlorophyll content, or “leaf greenness,” with an instrument made by Minolta, a company with a long history in camera development. By breaking the light cycle into multiple six-hour periods, the plant can rest and process the light it has received. Its the type of light that hits a flowering plant during its night time over an extending period of time, that causes hermies or plant confusion so to speak. The first thing you’ll notice is the plants’ sex (male, female or hermaphrodite) which is why it’s called pre. This South African native bulb thrives in U. Re-vegging is caused by plants getting light during their 12-hour dark period. Vaping Medical Marijuana & Smoking Medical Cannabis The primary difference between smoking and vaping is that vaping creates a cannabinoid-rich vapor by heating the cannabis, which you then inhale. Now this grow was growen the right way and was the best grow of cannabis in Thailand so far, all because they used a Master Grower. Chlorosis will eventually spread throughout the plant. Food from light and nitrogen decreases, and the demand for phosphorous and potassium increases to fuel the process. That only leaves at best 54 inches of height for your cannabis plants. When I talked about the lighting issue The light turned off for about an hour during the light cycle several times cause the breaker popped off, water leaking from ceiling and crazy shit, but thats all taken care of. Now it’s important that you make absolutely sure, there are no light leaks in your growing space / grow tent. There are a few ways that a cannabis plant can revert from a flowering period back to a vegetative period. Mh would not cause it to reveg, neither will a couple of light leaks. Last time in our home growing series here at Medical Jane, we discussed pre-veg and vegetative growth for cultivating medicinal cannabis indoors successfully. So, what I want to do is reveg so that I can get the most out of my plant and light. It offers initial nutrients and is PH balanced to provide maximum growth potential. If you have light leaks during your 12-12 dark cycle, incorrect growing conditions, poor lighting, or defective hydroponics nutrients, your blooming marijuana plants won't mature as rapidly as they could. For instance it is not okay to "just peek into the flowering tent or to do some little tiny chore because you are only going to be a minute or. Because the plants receive such little amount of light during the early season, they could start to flower, then stop and revert to their vegetative state as the hours of sunlight increase. As plants grow during vegetative stage, they are trained horizontally underneath the framework and held in place with twine. Different light, but surprisingly enough plants still flower when surrounded by street lights. Ed Note: Re-vegging extends the life of cannabis plants into another season of flowers. The first thing you’ll notice is the plants’ sex (male, female or hermaphrodite) which is why it’s called pre. Electric Sky 300 V2 Wideband LED Grow Light. Replies: 2. The plants have adapted to the often harsh, dry, and turbulent climate of the Hindu Kush mountains. Pro Tip 2: Keep humidity around 45%. The repeal of marijuana prohibition has begun, and is steadily gaining momentum. ly/1P3Tott Get Exclusive Videos- http://SchoolOfHardNugs. you know the plant is female) and in terms of product. sativa may be accepted as a single. While cannabis plants do love moisture, especially in the cloning and vegging stages, in the flowering stage you run the risk of powdery mildew on your buds with humidity anywhere about 50%. Not found in regular store brand fertilizers. Probably the easiest method, this will allow you to harvest a plant for buds and then re-veg it for a second growing season. Post-Harvest Re-Vegging. schoolofhardnugs. Three species may be recognized: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis; C. Cannabis Germination 1 9. In & outdoors - strategy 4. The plants have adapted to the often harsh, dry, and turbulent climate of the Hindu Kush mountains. Vegetative growth 11. as opposed to the high amounts of potassium and phosphorus that it likely received during flowering. Now, let’s take a closer look at marijuana’s four flowering phases:. Make sure the area is absolutely light proof! I cannot emphasize enough the importance of your grow space being light proof. This means faster flowering and no need to separate growing plants (24 hours of light) and flowering plants (12 hours of light). All the nutrients required to grow from seed to flower Crafted for growing cannabis Concentrated water soluble nutrients Grow 4 to 8 Plants Includes FREE Grow Guide. I’ve currently gone through almost two bottles and about to open my third. The plant-derived cannabinoids in marijuana block these body-cannabinoids, stopping this permeability, and making the intestinal bond tighter together. Compares to a 600 watt HPS/MH while only consuming 260 watts! Great for a 3x3 setup. If you have those two things covered, go for it. One of the main causes for hermaphrodite cannabis plants is light leaks during the night cycle. Juddy designed a simple system that recaptures the water from the air conditioners and dehumidifiers and, instead of sending it down the drain, reuses it for subsequent waterings. Remove dead, yellow leaves and smaller buds from the lower portion of the plant. Affordable plant lights can be found at many garden supply stores for less than $100. But, cannabis being a weed that naturally grows under a sky illuminated by stars and the moon during night, must have a certain tolerance to low light at night - hell, I've read about outdoor crops going into flowering after a couple of really dark. Welcome to the Viparspectra “Reflector Style” V600 LED Grow Light, with full spectrum lighting, reflectors and heat dissipation system, this light is perfect for any type of indoor plants during all stages. Only one plant has showed it's sex and was a boy. Flowering in outdoor plants is triggered when the days become shorter and the plant begins to receive around 12 hrs of light a day. HOW DOES ACCIDENTAL RE-VEGGING HAPPEN? When growing cannabis indoors, even small light leaks can disrupt the flowering period and make your plants revert to a vegetative state. I have heard from many places that stressing a plant during flowering can cause them to hermie. Vaping Medical Marijuana & Smoking Medical Cannabis The primary difference between smoking and vaping is that vaping creates a cannabinoid-rich vapor by heating the cannabis, which you then inhale. So, if your plant is revegging, it IS a light leak or an interruption of the dark in one manner or the other. “How can I keep my cannabis plants from flowering?” I am referring to young plants germinated from seeds or clones that are hearty enough to bring outdoors. You mustn’t prune more than 2-3 weeks into flowering. Growing weed comes to a near end when it is harvest time. I am not sure if this is valid anymore (or not) in the world of cloning and growing generations of plants indoors, but every marijuana plant has a natural light cycle it will grow best too. Cannabis plants grow outdoors naturally between the months of April to October/November. Unlike normal cannabis, which requires 24 hours of light to grow and then a 12 hour light cycle to flower, auto-flowering plants flower with 24 hours of light. Under about 2 weeks of 24 hours of light they will start to grow again. Distinguishing Male from Female Cannabis Plants. Make very sure no light leaks in, especially from outside. Juddy designed a simple system that recaptures the water from the air conditioners and dehumidifiers and, instead of sending it down the drain, reuses it for subsequent waterings. Light Leaks in the Flowering Stage – Revegging is common when flowering cannabis plants are exposed to light during their 12-hour dark period, for example if there's a light leak in the grow tent, or if someone is occasionally turning the light on in the closet. Light Cycle: as long as the plants receive no more than 10 to 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness they will remain in the vegetative growth phase, with the exception of auto-flowering strains. If you're in an area where the weather is warm enough that you can plant cannabis outdoors in the late winter to early spring, you should know about re-vegging. I switched to 12/12 3 weeks and 4 days ago. 12/12 is easy to explain. I’ve currently gone through almost two bottles and about to open my third. Once mature, Sour Tsunami produces dense olive-green buds. Visually, it looks more striking. How to re-veg weed plants. CO2 saturation is a great technique for the vegetative stage, when plants should be getting plenty of light. We will want the buds to be exposed to the light because this will get them to grow much more once transitioning to the flowering phase. Sharing knowledge of cannabis, medical marijuana, CBD, treatment options and reviewing products we actually use. This means faster flowering and no need to separate growing plants (24 hours of light) and flowering plants (12 hours of light). Light Leaks in the Night Cycle. Revegging is never caused by heat stress. These will be where all your new stems will. When it comes to monstercropping cannabis plants, the main idea is to put a flowering plant back into the vegetative stage, either by growing a plant out again after harvest, or taking a clone from a flowering marijuana plant. I just checked for light leaks and there is about a 8. Unless the flowers are formed and you could get mould. Cannabis seeds are traditionally created from a male and female cannabis plant. For instance it is not okay to "just peek into the flowering tent or to do some little tiny chore because you are only going to be a minute or. About seven out of every 10 marijuana plants I’ve tried to re-vegetate has handled the challenge well. The male plant’s “grape-like” pollen sacks will burst and spread its pollen during the flowering stage. You can put the grow tent kit in any corner as they won’t take much space and avoid the worry of separate grow room. So, what I want to do is reveg so that I can get the most out of my plant and light. While cannabis plants do love moisture, especially in the cloning and vegging stages, in the flowering stage you run the risk of powdery mildew on your buds with humidity anywhere about 50%. you know the plant is female) and in terms of product. Ive heard a good timed reveg on flower can increase yeilds if givin the time to switch from veg back to flower Light leak/Accidental reveg. Compares to a 600 watt HPS/MH while only consuming 260 watts! Great for a 3x3 setup. The light from the moon has no (hermie) effect on plants or any effect that has to do with Flowering problems. Temperatures that fluctuate from daytime heat to evening chill, dry air, short days and limited light are less than ideal growing conditions. I’ve currently gone through almost two bottles and about to open my third. Using it as a mother plant, could not start cloning future grows. I mean, if a plant is native to a region at the equator, then a 12/12 light cycle for the flower stage just seems natural. • Hours of light: Seeds that are exposed to fewer hours of light are likely to germinate into female plants. Vaping Medical Marijuana & Smoking Medical Cannabis The primary difference between smoking and vaping is that vaping creates a cannabinoid-rich vapor by heating the cannabis, which you then inhale. I have a hard time believing it's the lighting, I have a 400 watt hps devoted to this single plant. Grandma’s Secret Garden 3. Additional light may be required for seeds started during the winter months. That and you can’t Hermie unless you have flowers… Right? I run my veg area 24/0 because it’s out in the open anyway and I flick the overhead lights on and off all day long when I come down to the basement to putter. Trim the top off your plant to allow the leaves to get more light. Following a timer malfunction my skunk #1 clones currently at day 60 or so of flower have had 4/5 days of 24 hour light. As the days are getting shorter, light levels are decreasing and it’s getting colder outside, now is a great time to check your greenhouse environmental control systems and equipment. I switched to 12/12 3 weeks and 4 days ago. Post-Harvest Re-Vegging. Cannabis is an annual flowering plant, its life cycle limited to just one flowering season. I am not sure if this is valid anymore (or not) in the world of cloning and growing generations of plants indoors, but every marijuana plant has a natural light cycle it will grow best too. By considering the design of the grow box, accessories, and size; you can decide if the product will adequately allow you to cycle through various stages of plant growth with ease. These use energy extremely efficiently and still provide your plants with intense light. Department of Agriculture. This Grow More Hawaiian formula comes highly recommended for use during the later part of the flowering stage. Simply put, when the duration of daylight hours naturally decreases at the end of summer, your plants will sense the change in seasons and focus all their energy on making great, big buds. I've had plants herm from pinhole leaks when there was a veg light close to the leak so whatever light got through I assume was intense enough to cause it, but the same pinhole leaks don't cause that if the light in another part of the room and reflected off the walls then through the leaks. Indoor and outdoor cannabis hermaphrodites are often the result of the same cause, photoperiod interruption (interruption of the darkness cycle) via light leaks, human error, etc. Nutrients should be provided with each watering when your plants first enter marijuana flowering. It is not uncommon for a plant to go into shock during this phase due to the change in nutrients, keep an eye on your plants. Pro Tip 2: Keep humidity around 45%. Reefertilizer Trio 3-Part Cannabis Nutrient Kit For 4-6 Plants Start / Grow / Bloom. Growing marijuana indoors doesn’t require a massive green thumb or a tremendous volume of knowledge on how to grow pot. Myth #2: It Produces Way Less Weight than a Regular Growing Plant. It offers initial nutrients and is PH balanced to provide maximum growth potential. Cannabis Flowering 12. Outdoor growers often like to start their plants indoors or in a greenhouse so the plants can get 24 hours of light (possible with supplemental lighting). I’ve currently gone through almost two bottles and about to open my third. you know the plant is female) and in terms of product. How to re-veg weed plants. As the marijuana plants are put into flower, the floral clusters are encouraged to grow upwards through the netting Disadvantages: It is important to be observant. Its the type of light that hits a flowering plant during its night time over an extending period of time, that causes hermies or plant confusion so to speak. I have my HPS light on at night and off during day to keep heat temps down in there. Marijuana plants must be well cared-for and carefully harvested. During the vegetative phase, most growers give plants 18 hours of lighting. Trees' roots can absorb herbicides applied to weeds under the trees' canopies. This South African native bulb thrives in U. Distinguishing Male from Female Cannabis Plants. Department of Agriculture. Screen plants during extremely hot weather. This Grow More Hawaiian formula comes highly recommended for use during the later part of the flowering stage. How to Re-Veg a Cannabis Plant. Now it’s important that you make absolutely sure, there are no light leaks in your growing space / grow tent. Its just a cheapo timer from home depot. Cannabis needs 3 things to grow: Light, Air, and Nutrients. But, cannabis being a weed that naturally grows under a sky illuminated by stars and the moon during night, must have a certain tolerance to low light at night - hell, I've read about outdoor crops going into flowering after a couple of really dark. Cannabis seeds are traditionally created from a male and female cannabis plant. Affordable plant lights can be found at many garden supply stores for less than $100. schoolofhardnugs. They are showing signs of reveg (bolting, odd single bladed leaves) and judging by the pistils look ripe. Unless the flowers are formed and you could get mould. Make sure the area is absolutely light proof! I cannot emphasize enough the importance of your grow space being light proof. We got 20 new marijuana strains from 20 different breeders to make this list of the newest 20 best weed strains to grow in 2020. Can plants have 24 hours light? Yes, you can. Re vegging means putting a plant back into its vegetative state after taking a harvest from it. In the flowering stages of the light cycle, leaks of light happen and that is one of the several things that can cause your cannabis plant to get shocked and become hermaphroditic instead of being feminized. Make very sure no light leaks in, especially from outside. Seedlings need more light than full grown plants, ideally as much as 16-18 hours a day. There are a few ways that a cannabis plant can revert from a flowering period back to a vegetative period. Post-Harvest Re-Vegging. Some marijuana plants are too damaged before harvesting or by harvesting, so they won’t re-vegetate. Possible problem is light leaking into the grow room. The plants have adapted to the often harsh, dry, and turbulent climate of the Hindu Kush mountains. Light poisoning refers to the flowering night cycle of a plant being unnaturally interrupted with light. Built with the company’s unique wideband LEDs, the full spectrum light emitted gives solid canopy penetration combined with the specialized linear optics which allow for wider coverage. as opposed to the high amounts of potassium and phosphorus that it likely received during flowering. Origin: Cannabis indica is native to Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, and Turkey. You can put the grow tent kit in any corner as they won’t take much space and avoid the worry of separate grow room. ---- ----- ----Below is a suggestion for developing your own marijuana indoor growing soil. • Hours of light: Seeds that are exposed to fewer hours of light are likely to germinate into female plants. The cause of pinkeye is not known. During the 4 to 16 weeks of the flowering stage, the cannabis plant will continue its growth until the flowers fully develop. Plants create food during light cycles and eat during dark hours. The best marijuana fertilizers have plenty of trace elements in them. It is also one of the trickiest stages and understanding it may seem confusing to some people especially those planting the crop for the first time. Grow Room Light Cycle Interruptions Indoor growers use light cycle manipulation to trigger cannabis plants to flower or stay in a state of vegetative growth. usually because of a light leak or a. Can plants have 24 hours light? Yes, you can. Electric Sky 300 V2 Wideband LED Grow Light. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOPERIOD. Growing marijuana indoors doesn’t require a massive green thumb or a tremendous volume of knowledge on how to grow pot. Even a few short nights or a light leak during the flowering stage may be all it takes to start a re-veg! Re-vegging cannabis plants show odd leaf symptoms such as smooth leaves, twisted or unusual growth, and you may see new stems or long leaves growing directly out. Now that you understand the cannabis plant, its needs, and phases of life, you are ready to set up your room so you can get growing soon. ly/1P3Tott Get Exclusive Videos- http://SchoolOfHardNugs. Depending on the severity, a light leak can stress out your plants. When this occurs the plant is under 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness. Trees' roots can absorb herbicides applied to weeds under the trees' canopies. For instance it is not okay to "just peek into the flowering tent or to do some little tiny chore because you are only going to be a minute or. Brand-new sativa, indica and hybrid cannabis seed strains categorized in the order of feminized, regular and autoflowering seeds. While cannabis plants do love moisture, especially in the cloning and vegging stages, in the flowering stage you run the risk of powdery mildew on your buds with humidity anywhere about 50%. By breaking the light cycle into multiple six-hour periods, the plant can rest and process the light it has received. Light Leaks in the Flowering Stage - Revegging is common when flowering cannabis plants are exposed to light during their 12-hour dark period, for example if there's a light leak in the grow tent, or if someone is occasionally turning the light on in the closet. Don’t even go into your grow room during the 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness because even the light from another room leaking in for a second can change things. This method, also known as “ monster cropping” , will result to new plants having very thick bushes with a great deal of branches and multiple nodes. I don't have the experience to be sure one way or the other, but there are some interesting points that argue against light leaks to a small point and other issues like herms that reinforce the no leak law. Trim the top off your plant to allow the leaves to get more light. It is also one of the trickiest stages and understanding it may seem confusing to some people especially those planting the crop for the first time. Light Leaks in the Night Cycle. • Pink areas around eyes of tubers. Flowering is 63 days and potency is extremely high. The plant-derived cannabinoids in marijuana block these body-cannabinoids, stopping this permeability, and making the intestinal bond tighter together. Revegging can be used to create a mother plant from a plant which has given you particularly good results, or just to get another. Some marijuana plants are too damaged before harvesting or by harvesting, so they won’t re-vegetate. Any light that leaks into the plant space can disrupt the flowering of the cannabis and cause stress to or confuse the plant. There are a few ways that a cannabis plant can revert from a flowering period back to a vegetative period. For a splash of vibrant color indoors or out, grow orange ornithogalum flowers. I personally grow only one plant in each trunk, but 2 smaller ones are probably perfectly acceptable. Electric Sky 300 V2 Wideband LED Grow Light. Forums Growing Marijuana Sick Plants and Problems. ---- ----- ----Below is a suggestion for developing your own marijuana indoor growing soil. Now we are approaching the flowering stage, after which you can start harvesting. ; or, light poisoning. When the canopy is filled, there is no need to bring your light closer during flowering. Our intent is to assist fellow growers in the successful growth and harvest of high quality. HOW DOES ACCIDENTAL RE-VEGGING HAPPEN? When growing cannabis indoors, even small light leaks can disrupt the flowering period and make your plants revert to a vegetative state. Bear in mind that if a plant is kept in the vegetative stage for a long time, it will eventually. Possible problem over-fertilization, burned roots from too much fertilizer, root bound, marijuana plant disease. Our intent is to assist fellow growers in the successful growth and harvest of high quality. Electric Sky 300 V2 Wideband LED Grow Light. Brand-new sativa, indica and hybrid cannabis seed strains categorized in the order of feminized, regular and autoflowering seeds. But when they transfer those plants outside, problems can arise. Cloning of Flowering Plants Another method of cannabis cultivation is the creation of clones of flowering cannabis plants and coercing them to root and return to the vegetative phase. While cannabis plants do love moisture, especially in the cloning and vegging stages, in the flowering stage you run the risk of powdery mildew on your buds with humidity anywhere about 50%. The best way to prevent this is to close yourself inside your darkened room during the daylight, and then after allowing a few minutes for your eyes to adjust to the dark, check for any light leaks from covered windows, door jams, etc. I just checked for light leaks and there is about a 8. But the problem is, if I reveg and the plant goes hermie as a result, I not only ruin the bud, but I also waste all of the added electricity of revegging. 3% THC levels. During the 12 hours of darkness each day, it’s extremely important that no light enter the location of the plants. Lol and i looked down at my timer and it was giving it like 18 hours of light. Light Leaks in the Night Cycle. Compares to a 600 watt HPS/MH while only consuming 260 watts! Great for a 3x3 setup. I personally grow only one plant in each trunk, but 2 smaller ones are probably perfectly acceptable. Most auto-flowering strains were built with stealth and quickness in mind. The most significant reason is that light leaks can wreak havoc especially during the flowering or bloom phase. Forums Growing Marijuana Sick Plants and Problems. The number of species within the genus is disputed. I just checked for light leaks and there is about a 8. The sealed environment prevents light leaks, and prevent light from getting in during dark periods. These danger times are during the first few hours of blackout for a flowering plant during warm/humid summer months. com strives to brings value to you purchasing experience. Our intent is to assist fellow growers in the successful growth and harvest of high quality. Pinkeye occurs on tubers in wet soil. The availability of light will greatly affect the longevity of the vegetative stage. Got a 6x12 area closed in. You will be able to find white pistols, which are like hairs, sprouting out from the plant. Removing Big Leaves from Marijuana Plants. Make very sure no light leaks in, especially from outside. Additional light may be required for seeds started during the winter months. Forums Growing Marijuana Sick Plants and Problems. Autoflowering plants as we have determined earlier grow best when you give them between 18 and 24 hours of light each day but there are many circumstances when a grower need to give his plants only 12 hours of light. The best way to achieve this task is to wait for a sunny day, (first ;-) roll a joint and than sit in the room for about ten minutes with the lights out. Grandma’s Secret Garden 3. Think about it your LED grow light is likely 6 inches high, you need 18 to 24 inches of space between your grow light and the top of your plants that are 24 inches of height lost already, more like 35 inches if you use HPS grow lights. Insights Regarding Cannabis Hermaphrodites I’m Rev, and hopefully today’s info will enlighten you to better growing awareness, and better buds baybee; that’s what I’m talkin’ about. Only one plant has showed it's sex and was a boy. A marijuana plant will start to flower when the nights are getting longer, If you give it more light it will stop flowering and start to grow again. Find Top Marijuana Dispensaries & Locate a Dispensary Near You. ly/1P3Tott Get Exclusive Videos- http://SchoolOfHardNugs. Light Leaks in the Flowering Stage - Revegging is common when flowering cannabis plants are exposed to light during their 12-hour dark period, for example if there's a light leak in the grow tent, or if someone is occasionally turning the light on in the closet. As the days are getting shorter, light levels are decreasing and it’s getting colder outside, now is a great time to check your greenhouse environmental control systems and equipment. The cause of pinkeye is not known. During the flowering cycle, you want your plants to be in total darkness once the lights are off. Especially during the flowering stage it’s important that no light reaches the plants, because this could cause them to revert back into the vegetative stage. Click Here to Subscribe - http://bit. Some marijuana plants are too damaged before harvesting or by harvesting, so they won’t re-vegetate. Cannabis plants grow outdoors naturally between the months of April to October/November. While cannabis plants do love moisture, especially in the cloning and vegging stages, in the flowering stage you run the risk of powdery mildew on your buds with humidity anywhere about 50%. Post-Harvest Re-Vegging. will help you grow better cannabis indoors. But if you want to create a box that is 100% light-proof you will have to do some clever engineering as you will need materials that are light proof and also the grow closet doors. Even a few short nights or a light leak during the flowering stage may be all it takes to start a re-veg! Re-vegging cannabis plants show odd leaf symptoms such as smooth leaves, twisted or unusual growth, and you may see new stems or long leaves growing directly out. Its just a cheapo timer from home depot. Cannabis Lighting 7. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOPERIOD. you know the plant is female) and in terms of product. Not found in regular store brand fertilizers. The plants might get, say, only 15 hours of light and could face cooler. When the plant senses a change in light cycles (Autumn/Winter periods), it will begin to “flower”. Grow Room Light Cycle Interruptions Indoor growers use light cycle manipulation to trigger cannabis plants to flower or stay in a state of vegetative growth. Nor will they produce as much THC or weight. Some of the things we talked about included knowing how much space to leave for growth once flowering begins and what kind of spacing and plant numbers a grower might need to achieve their desired yield levels with the strain(s) selected. Predictive Insights Into Yields. The most common reason plant leaves turn yellow is because of stress. Vaping Medical Marijuana & Smoking Medical Cannabis The primary difference between smoking and vaping is that vaping creates a cannabinoid-rich vapor by heating the cannabis, which you then inhale. The male plant’s “grape-like” pollen sacks will burst and spread its pollen during the flowering stage. During flowering it is best to keep the average light intensity between 700-1000umols (60,000-80,000 lux). There are a few ways that a cannabis plant can revert from a flowering period back to a vegetative period. Over 80 chemicals, known as cannabinoids, have been identified in the Cannabis sativa plant. To understand the science behind this, we must first look at the contents of a typical leaf and its relationship to the plant's overall health. Contains boron, which may be detrimental to your cannabis plants if used long-term; Final Thoughts. Choose from Feminized, Autoflowering and CBD Medical Marijuana Seeds for sale,sold with guaranteed germination. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOPERIOD. Is it important to always follow the 12-hour light and 12-hour dark cycle during the flowering stage of my cannabis crop? Yes, this is one of the most important details for growing a successful crop. My current flower chamber is not light proof I just. I’ve currently gone through almost two bottles and about to open my third. Light Leaks in the Flowering Stage – Revegging is common when flowering cannabis plants are exposed to light during their 12-hour dark period, for example if there's a light leak in the grow tent, or if someone is occasionally turning the light on in the closet. The number of species within the genus is disputed. There are many different places that people grow cannabis indoors, including; basements bedrooms closets garages greenhouses attics With the right planning your indoor grow room can be used to harvest buds 3 to 5 different times in a year, as compared to the. Th e key to all naturally ventilated greenhouses are roof vents. These are the most common sources of light leaks: Faulty timers; Light leaks around windows, zippers, ports or pinholes. Because more presence of lights induced better vegetating. These use energy extremely efficiently and still provide your plants with intense light. The most common reason plant leaves turn yellow is because of stress. Having more leaves also helps the marijuana plant to take full advantage of the available light conditions. I just reread this question, and this is what you do: Harvest just about the entire plant when it's ready, but leave a popcorn bud on the 4 lowest branches of the plant, (two on each side of the stalk). This means that towards the Sept/Oct/Nov dates the plants will be in flowering. I have my HPS light on at night and off during day to keep heat temps down in there. During the 4 to 16 weeks of the flowering stage, the cannabis plant will continue its growth until the flowers fully develop. Ed Note: Re-vegging extends the life of cannabis plants into another season of flowers. I just reread this question, and this is what you do: Harvest just about the entire plant when it's ready, but leave a popcorn bud on the 4 lowest branches of the plant, (two on each side of the stalk). HOW DOES ACCIDENTAL RE-VEGGING HAPPEN? When growing cannabis indoors, even small light leaks can disrupt the flowering period and make your plants revert to a vegetative state. I have heard from many places that stressing a plant during flowering can cause them to hermie. In a 2017 cannabis fertilizer study by the University of Guelph, researchers collected weekly data points on plant growth, including measurements of chlorophyll content, or “leaf greenness,” with an instrument made by Minolta, a company with a long history in camera development. A marijuana plant will start to flower when the nights are getting longer, If you give it more light it will stop flowering and start to grow again. Remove dead, yellow leaves and smaller buds from the lower portion of the plant. Your cannabis plant has put a lot of energy and resources into creating an efficient root network and all of those nutrient pathways are still there after harvesting. 12/12 is easy to explain. Flowering is 63 days and potency is extremely high. Once ready, switching the light cycle 12 hours on, 12 hours off, triggers the flowering stage. • Pink areas around eyes of tubers. While growing weed indoors does present some challenges for someone new to the hobby – and there’s a ton of misinformation out there about how to grow weed indoors – this endeavor doesn’t need to be strenuous. This could be due to its environment, prolonged flowering periods or cross-contamination and pollination between male and female plants, resulting in offspring with higher THC content. This article has basic ‘how to’ info how re-vegging cannabis plants. The plants might get, say, only 15 hours of light and could face cooler.